Beat cream in a bowl with an electric mixer until thick. Add mascarpone cheese and sugar; beat until well mixed.
Pour espresso into a bowl. Dip ladyfingers in espresso, then touch cookies briefly to a paper towel to remove excess moisture. Arrange dipped ladyfingers in a single layer in the bottom of a 13x9-inch baking dish. Spread 1/2 the mascarpone cheese mixture over ladyfingers. Arrange another layer of dipped ladyfingers over the mascarpone cheese mixture and spread the remaining 1/2 mascarpone mixture over the ladyfingers. Chill in the refrigerator for 24 hours.