Preheat oven to 350 degrees F (175 degrees C). Grease a 9x13-inch pan.
Beat sugar and butter together in a large bowl with an electric mixer until light and fluffy; add eggs one at a time, thoroughly beating each egg into the butter mixture before adding the next. Add vanilla with the last egg.
Sift flour, baking powder, and baking soda together in a bowl. Pour flour mixture alternately with the sour cream into the butter mixture, mixing until just incorporated. Fold chocolate chips into the batter. Pour batter into prepared pan.
Bake in the preheated oven until a toothpick inserted into the center of the cake comes out clean, about 30 minutes.